Rosa Luxemburg (5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) born to a Jewish family in Zamość was a Marxist theorist and Jewish Bolshevik. She organised the Spartacus League and founded the Red Flag newspaper, demanding amnesty for all political prisoners and the abolition of capital punishment. From 29–31 December 1918, Luxemburg took part in a joint congress of the Spartacist League, independent Socialists, and the International Communists of Germany (IKD). This led to the foundation of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) under her leadership on 1st January 1919. She also supported the KPD’s participation in the Weimar National Assembly that founded the Weimar Republic. In January 1919, a second Jewish Bolshevik wave swept Berlin in a violent attempt to seize power. The Red Flag encouraged the Jewish Bolsheviks to occupy editorial offices of the press.