After the Jewish seizure of 1917, the Tsar’s Government was abolished and replaced by a Jewish Bolshevik regime called the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). The Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) was replaced by the Jewish NKVD under a ‘People’s Commissar’. The NKVD conducted mass executions, run the Gulag labour and extermination camps and suppressed underground resistance. It was also responsible for the introduction of the secret political police, the Cheka, led by Felix Dzerzhinsky. The Cheka practiced torture and methods included being skinned alive, scalped, impaled, crucified, hanged, stoned to death, tied to planks and pushed slowly into furnaces or tanks of boiling water, or rolled around naked in internally nail-studded barrels. Women and children were also victims of Cheka terror. Women would sometimes be tortured and raped before being shot. Children between the ages of 8 and 13 were imprisoned and executed. Cheka was actively and openly utilizing kidnapping methods and with it was able to extinguish numerous people especially among the rural population. Villages were also bombarded to complete annihilation.