Dmytro Ivanovych Dontsov (August 29, 1883 – March 30, 1973) was a Ukrainian nationalist writer, publisher, journalist and political thinker whose ideas were a major influence on the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN). Dontsov categorically discredited the Ukrainian ‘Little Russian’ spirit (his brochure Modern Russophilism , 1913) and the false internationalism of Marxist parties and ideologies (his article “Engels, Marx, and Lassalle on ‘Non-Historical Nations,’” 1914), concurrently advancing the concept of Ukrainian national and political identity . Dontsov proposed a new “nationalism of the deed” and a united “national will” and called for the birth of a “new man” with “hot faith and stone heart” (гарячої віри й кам’яного серця). He believed that a nation’s culture is something sacred and should be protected by any means necessary. Dontsov conceptually proved the dire necessity for an independent Ukrainian state as a decisive factor in stabilizing all of Central and Eastern Europe at a time when almost all Ukrainian politicians were only talking about autonomy and federation, or did not believe in the very possibility of independence. His fiery exhortations had a profound influence on many of Ukraine’s youth who experienced the oppression of their nation and who were disillusioned with democracy. Thus during the inter-war period, Dontsov was the ideological leader of a new generation and it was under his moral and psychological influence that the first nationalist underground organizations were formed.