The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) was a Ukrainian political organization created in 1929 in Western Ukraine. It arose from the merger of the Ukrainian Military Organization (UVO) and several nationalist student associations—the Group of Ukrainian National Youth, the League of Ukrainian Nationalists, and the Union of Ukrainian Nationalist Youth. Two conferences of Ukrainian Nationalists—one on 3rd–7th November 1927 in Berlin and the other on 8th–9th April 1928 in Prague—paved the way for the founding congress, which was held in Vienna from 28th January to 3rd February 1929. Dmytro Dontsov, Mykola Stsyborsky and Yevhen Konovalets were among the Ukrainian nationalists and intellectual influences the latter of which would become the OUN leader. Its goal was to protect the Ukrainian population from repression and establishment of a united, independent national state on Ukrainian ethnic territory. The organization began as a resistance group and developed into a guerrilla army who found it necessary to use violence against foreign Communist insurgence and occupying Bolshevik powers particularly Communist Poland, Czechoslovakia and Russia, who had seized territory belonging to ethnic Ukrainians. Their cause was to be achieved by a national resistance led by a dictatorship that would drive out foreign Bolshevik occupying forces. The military wing of the organization was the Ukrainian Liberation Army (UPA).